An assessment of atmospheric deposition of metals and the physico -chemical parameters of a rainwater harvesting system in Rio de Janeiro Brazil, by means of statistical multivariate analysis
This study evaluates the rainwater harvesting system to determine the chemical quality of the water and allocate it for use. Samples were collected in the city of Rio de Janeiro at the points of Direct Precipitation (DP), First Flush (FF) and Reservoir (RR). The methodology involved carrying out an analysis of Ca, Cd, Cu, Na, Ni, Fe, K, Mg, Pb, Zn, conductivity, turbidity, pH and chloride. The R language was used for the principal component analysis, Pearson coefficient correlation, hierarchical cluster analysis, Tukey test and boxplot. The results show that when there is no interference from the catchment surface (DP), the rainwater has a low concentration of metals, although the first millimeters of rain have a concentration above what is permissible in the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health (Ordinance n° 05/2017). The disposal system (FF) reduced the concentration of pollutants in the RR, but not enough to comply with legislation. It was noted that Ca, K and Na are the main metals found in rainwater. During the dry period, there were significant correlations between the physico-chemical and meteorological parameters. The high concentration of metals in the wet period suggests that rain assists the cleaning of the atmosphere and that most metals are present in the form of aerosols or fine particles suspended in the air. The findings reveal significant indications of acid rain and pre-treatment is recommended to ensure rainwater can be used safely for more mundane purposes.
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