Water balance in soil covered by regenerating rainforest in the Paraíba Valley region, São Paulo, Brazil
The objective of this study was to evaluate the water balance in a Red-Yellow Latosol covered by a regenerating rainforest for 30 years in the Una River Basin between April 2016 and March 2017. Field capacity (FC) and permanent wilting-point values (PWP) used to calculate the available water capacity (AWC) in the soil were determined by the soil moisture characteristic curve obtained in pots, which made it possible to determine the soil residual water content (g / g) from the measurement of water tension in 15 Watermark (TM) sensors installed at depths of 40, 60 and 120 cm. Precipitation during the period (1962 mm) was obtained from the automatic weather station located 300 m from the experimental area. Soil surface runoff was obtained from 5 collectors distributed in the experimental area. Precipitation was characterized by a maximum of 454 mm in January 2017 and no rain in July 2016. The actual evapotranspiration was 744 mm. There were 56 runoff events (SR) totaling 60 mm. The average soil water tension remained below 37 kPa in 67% of the studied period, a condition that kept the soil moisture content high. The soil water balance of the tropical forest area, up to 120 cm deep, kept soil water content near its maximum capacity (173 mm) 49% of the time and saturated 51% of the time, so that it generated deep drainage beyond 120 cm deep and 1023 mm deep.
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