Characterization of water quality and the effects of land use and seasonality on springs in eastern Amazonia
Land-use changes followed by inadequate management may cause serious impacts to springs, generating losses in quality and availability. An alternative to minimize or mitigate potential future impacts is to monitor the water quality parameters of micro-watersheds in the medium- and long-term. This monitoring is essential for planning purposes and governmental environmental regulation, especially in highly altered regions in the Amazon, such as Paragominas, in the state of Pará. This study investigated the influence of land use change and seasonality on the quality of springs. For this purpose, physicochemical parameters characteristic of water quality in five collection points of springs with a surrounding area of distinct land use history were analyzed between 2015 and 2017. Following the current legislation, the only parameter in imbalance was dissolved oxygen (DO). However, these are common values, considering springs. The results showed that most of the parameters presented variation to different land uses. This interpretation was intensified mainly by the variations in Sodium, TN, DO and temperature. However, few of these variables were related to local seasonality (only turbidity, sulfate and potassium). These results prove that it is possible to integrate the change in the use and occupation of the basin, determined by the variations observed in the sampled points. Thus, studies and diagnostics that can subsidize management in basin areas are an important tool to direct public policies to improve environmental and social quality for the population living around these basins.
Keywords: Amazon, land use change, springs, water quality.
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