Water scarcity footprint of cocoa irrigation in Bahia
This study simulated the water scarcity footprint (WSF) of cocoa irrigation in municipalities considered suitable for cocoa growing in the state of Bahia, according to agro climatic zoning. Irrigation demand was calculated using the model proposed by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). Subsequently, impact on water scarcity was calculated using the product of crop irrigation demand and water scarcity characterization factors of the regionalized AWARE method for Brazil. The WSF in Bahia ranged between 0.28 and 646.5 m³ of water per kilo of cocoa produced. From the defined scale, of the 417 municipalities in Bahia suitable for growing cocoa, 59% have a 'low' footprint, 18% 'medium', 10% 'high', and 12% have a 'very high' footprint. Based on these results, it is suggested that areas with lower WSF are a priority in the expansion of cocoa to avoid a possible compromise of other essential demands of the municipalities. In addition, irrigation should avoid waste, especially in regions with high levels of water scarcity. The results show that the inclusion of the WSF in agroclimatic zoning can contribute to the process of identifying potential and critical regions for new crops and the expansion of others.
Keywords: agriculture, agroclimatic zoning, AWARE, environmental indicator.
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