Surveillance of public water supply fluoridation and municipal indicators: an analysis in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil
This study investigated the demographic, socioeconomic, and municipal health indicators related to the quality of water fluoridation. An ecological study was carried out in Espirito Santo state (ES), based on data from the Drinking Water Quality Surveillance Information, from 2014 to 2017. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney and Spearman tests were applied to compare municipal indicators with the availability of information and the quality of fluoridation, respectively. Fluoridation quality was calculated to define the percentage of fluoride concentration values in each municipality within the range of the optimal level corresponding to the maximum benefit for preventing dental caries and minimum risk for the occurrence of dental fluorosis. The proportion of 80% or more samples were defined as a compliance criterion. In 2014, 62.8% of the municipalities had information available, and 16.7% performed analyses of fluoride concentration. The percentage of available data increased about 30%, in 2017, with 3.8% referring to fluoride. The quality of fluoridation remained high (> 80%) in ES in almost every year, except in 2014. The municipalities with the largest population, the highest GDP per capita, and the lowest coverage of the oral health team exhibited a greater availability of information about fluoride (p <0.05). The child mortality rate showed a strong negative correlation with the quality of fluoridation. The findings reinforce the importance of directing public policies that ensure the correct practices for monitoring and maintaining the quality of fluoridation.
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